A sad moment in Indian history. Communist World-We have Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Ho chi Minh and Castro. All of them are being presently portrayed as archvillains and enemies of mankind. Their good qualities are rarely acknowledged and their dark deeds magnified and presented.. This is not Lenin statue brought to ground; but the Indian culture and heritage which has grown its roots over 5000 years just brought down in minutes. Ideologies should evolve through more convincing arguments and evidence. They grow through assimilation, inclusion, and integration.
Coercion and arrogance can never kill any ideology. Relevance is not equal to majority’s acceptance. Ideas and Ideologioes don’t become irrelevant even if the majority does not subscribe to them. It was Lenin who was the midwife of the Russian Revolution. Lenin was the mastermind. Without him, the Russian Revolution would not have happened. He was the one who almost single-handedly changed the history of the world and brought the workers and peasants to the central stage. Lenin, who was anti-war, was sent by Germany to undermine the provisional government from making peace with Britain and France and continuing the war with Germany.
In his Development of Capitalism in Russia(1899) he said that capitalism was rapidly destroying the peasant commune. He claimed that the peasantry was rapidly stratifying into a well-off rural bourgeoisie a middling peasantry, and an impoverished rural “proletariat and semi-proletariat…” Most important, Lenin said that the revolution was moving from its ‘bourgeois’ stage towards the socialist stage. He was convinced that the death of Capitalism was fast approaching.
Trotsky, who had clashed swords with Lenin on many occasions in his Menshevik past had veered around to the position that Lenin was right. In 1917 the Bolshevik party was very different from the tightly knit conspiratorial party advocated by Lenin in 1903. Though more unified than the other Russian parties like the Mensheviks, the Bolsheviks were still a diverse lot and even after Lenin’s April Theses became official policy, the gradualist views of Kamenev and Zinoviev continued to enjoy strong support. What Bolsheviks actually wanted was enshrined in the constitution of 1918: Abolition of all exploitation of man by man, the complete elimination of the division of society into classes, the ruthless suppression of the exploiters, the establishment of a socialist organization of society, and the victory of socialism in all countries. Hundred years hence, these are still distant dreams. Capitalism has proved to be much stronger than the Russian revolutionaries had imagined.
When Revolution came to Russia Lenin was in Switzerland and Trotsky in New York and Stalin was in exile. They were not the revolutionaries they’re made out to be. They usurped power and turned a peasant uprising into a bloody coup to seize power as the provisional government teetered. Lenin’s entry into Russia from Switzerland was facilitated by the Germans. He arrived in a sealed train at the Finland Station, St. Petersburg. His presence was electrifying. His absolute contempt for liberalism, his implacable opposition to the war, and his appreciation of the mass appeal of soviets stood in stark contrast to the views of the other party members who had committed the party to conditional support for the Provisional Government, a none too clear position on the war, and to negotiations with the Mensheviks to reunify the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
“There are moments when the interests of the proletariat demand the merciless annihilation of the enemy in open armed battles”. “Theere has not been a single revolution, or era of civil war, without executions” said Lenin.
By 1917 it became evident that the people had had enough of the Czar and his government. Corruption and inefficiency were ruling the roost. On 3 April 1917 Lenin returned to Russia after long years of exile. Communism does not have an universal definition as such, but it can be understood, from the use of the term by leftists, as a nomencalture for a condition rather than an ideology. Also a larger consensus among leftists is that communism is a society without money and unhealthy competition, but with a robust trade and commerce and a sustainable use of technology. Marxism is a method of scientific inquiry (and not exactly an ideology per se) used in almost all social science and humanities disciplines, history, art history, sociology, gender studies, international relations, law, literature, economics, commerce and so on. Its ultimate political and economic aim is communism but not its sole purpose. The Russian Revolution and the Civil War are a chain of events that ended in the victory of the Bolsheviks. One cannot separate the events that took place during those years. The butchery of the innocents take place even now. The murders during Bolshevik Revolution were instigated and approved by leaders.
Marxism-There is no such thing as labour aristocracy when the state withers away. Marxism’s historical determinism was both unique and original and has not received the same attention as its propositions about class struggle, the laws of capitalist development ( the inevitability of the collapse of capitalism) and a proletarian-led march to socialism. The attraction of Marxism is best understood in the way the world works – economic analysis of capitalism and of social relations of class; in short, there is a core of determinism in the reasoning of Marx. When we try to link Marxism with Communism, it is basically the attempts by the Western Marxists like Kolakowski and even Bukanin and Rosa Luxemburg, who all anticipated the Communism’s totalitarian outcome, to make a distinction between the two by claiming that Marx needed to be saved from the distortions at the hands of its practitioners.
These Marxist purists believed that it should be possible to rescue the original founder from the excesses committed in his name. However, Marxism as a theoretical doctrine cannot be separated from the history of the political movements, thoughts and systems that the Marxist ideology led to. Those who lived under Communism would find it difficult to distinguish between the two, when we witness Marxism’s transformation from an intellectual thought process to a political system and way of life, that we called communism.
Communism was after all Marxism’s only political and practical outcome. Lenin fully agrees with Marx that immediately following the revolution, there is “a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat” He had his doubts.
“ socialism cannot achieve victory simultaneously in all countries. It will achieve victory first in one or several countries, while the others will for some time remain bourgeois or pre-bourgeois. This is bound to create not only friction, but a direct attempt on the part of the bourgeoisie of other countries to crush the socialist state.” Writing in 1916 Lenin says.
The Russian Revolution was often presented by the Imperialist historians as coup against the State. What was conveniently forgotten was that there was practically no state in Russia to be overthrown. The Provisional Government had lost its legitimacy long ago. The workers and the peasants longed for democracy there was no doubt. But for them things like constitution, civil rights and an elected republic at the helm were secondary.
They were more interested in the grassroots institutions like the soviets and factory committees which they considered truly democratic. But both they and the Bolsheviks reckoned without the strong opposition they would face from the capitalists, landowners, supporters of monarchy and, above all, the world imperialist powers. What happened in the next few years was a murderous civil war and the encirclement and isolation of Russia.“it is necessary secretly-and urgently to prepare the terror”. Thus started a period that is now referred to as ‘Red Terror’. “Lenin personally signed the execution lists, thereby inventing another tradition that was carried on under Stalin”. Maxim Gorky supported Lenin and said “if the enemy does not surrender, he must be destroyed”. Recovering from an assassination attempt Lenin wrote.